Bibliography for TWC Validation

Connection to School Outcomes

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Research Questions:

RQ1: What is the relationship between grade configuration and teachers’ perceptions of working conditions in North Carolina public K-8 and middle schools?

This study examines the relationship between grade configuration and teachers' perceptions of working conditions in public K-8 and middle schools in North Carolina. It utilizes the 2006 NCTWCS dataset and employs T-tests and correlations. Findings revealed differences in positive perceptions: K-8 teachers report more positive attitudes than their middle school teaching peers. 

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A1. To examine how survey item perceptions are predictive of teachers’ intended departures from schools, independent of other school factors.

A2. To raise questions about the utility of NCTWC Survey data for predicting planned departures, departure rates, and student achievement

This research delves into how teachers’ perceptions of working conditions predict their intentions to stay or leave, independent of school characteristics. Ladd finds that teachers’ intentions to stay or leave their school are significantly predicted by other teachers' working conditions. However, teacher perceptions have a weaker relationship with actual one-year departure and student achievement. 

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Research Questions:
RQ1. How much of the school-to-school variation in teachers’ ratings of their school working conditions can be attributed to principals?

RQ2. How correlated are the estimated principal effects?

The study investigates the influence of principals on teachers' ratings of their working conditions using value-added modeling. Burkhauser's approach of isolating the principal's influence offers a unique perspective on the dynamics of working conditions. The study finds that teacher perceptions of the school are influenced by the specific principal leading the school, controlling for other school- and district-level factors. Burkhauser suggests that districts evaluate school climate to advise and support principals.  

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Research Questions:
RQ1. What are the differences between North Carolina elementary teachers' and principals' perceptions of:
    A. school leadership as reported on the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey?
    B. teacher empowerment as reported on the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey?
    C. time as reported on the North Carolina Working Teacher Conditions Survey?
    D. professional development as reported on the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey?
    E. facilities and resources as reported on the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey?

RQ6. Is there a statistically significant relationship between North Carolina elementary teachers' perceptions of teaching and learning and the academic achievement as reported on the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey?

This investigation focuses on elementary teachers' and principals' perceptions of working conditions in North Carolina and their connection to academic achievement. Applewhite's comparative analysis between teachers and principals offers a nuanced understanding of working conditions. The study finds a statistically significant difference between principal and teacher assessments of working conditions across five domains: school leadership, teacher empowerment, time, professional development, facilities and resources. A weak association between domain teacher perceptions and annual yearly progress (AYP) measures is noted. 

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Research Questions:
RQ1. Which components of the Beginning Teacher Support Program are associated with the retention of beginning teachers in high-poverty school districts?

RQ2. Which working conditions are associated with the retention of beginning teachers in high-poverty school districts?

RQ3. Among the components of teacher working conditions and a beginning teacher support program, which has the strongest correlation to the retention of beginning teachers in high-poverty school districts?

Moore's study assesses the impact of teacher working conditions and support on the retention of novice teachers in high-poverty districts. The focus on high-poverty districts adds an important dimension to understanding working conditions. The study focuses on domains of time, teacher leadership, school leadership, professional development, and instructional practices & support. Findings show that school leadership and mentors are associated with teacher retention of new teachers. 

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Research Questions:
RQ1. Is there a greater probability that teachers will express their intention to leave their current school assignment (either by transferring to a new school or leaving the profession entirely) when their schools ’ working conditions are poor?

RQ2. Do differences in the probability of teacher turnover by working conditions (as detected in RQ1) differ when actual teacher-turnover rates replace their expressed intent?

RQ3. To what degree is it more probable that highly effective teachers will leave their current school assignments when working conditions are poor as compared to their less effective peers?

RQ4. Do schools where teachers report greater satisfaction with working conditions demonstrate higher levels of student achievement than schools in which the teachers express less satisfaction with working conditions?"

Tomberlin explores the relationship between working conditions, teacher retention, and productivity in a North Carolina school district. The case-study approach provides in-depth insights but may limit the generalizability of the findings. Tomberlin employs exploratory factor analysis and analyses that challenge the purported eight-domain structure as four unique domains: professionalism, school leadership, student conduct, and professional development. Using this novel factor structure, Tomberlin finds that elementary teachers' retention is linked to professionalism perceptions. Additionally, middle and high school teacher perceptions are differentially associated with stated mobility intentions and actual mobility. Lastly, teacher perceptions of school leader expectations of student behavior are predictive of high school-level value-added scores for elementary and middle schools.  

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This report confirms the eight-domain structure of the NCTWC Survey results from 2014, emphasizing their internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis used in this study provides a robust validation of the survey's domain structure.

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This study investigates various aspects of working conditions and their impact on teacher retention and student learning. Teachers view sufficient time and control over their work as vital for student learning, although time alone isn't directly linked to student achievement. Other factors like professional development, leadership, and a collegial environment significantly impact school performance and teacher retention. Surveys reveal a strong alignment between teachers' perceptions and actual working conditions, emphasizing the importance of their involvement in decision-making. There's a notable discrepancy between how teachers and principals perceive these conditions, with teachers often feeling their concerns, especially regarding time and authority, are overlooked. Teacher backgrounds, including race, gender, and education, show minimal impact on their perception of working conditions, but there's a variance in views on professional development, particularly between high school and elementary teachers. The study highlights the interconnectedness of working conditions, suggesting that improvements in leadership and empowerment can have a positive ripple effect on overall teacher satisfaction and student learning.

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C1. Teacher Working Conditions are Student Learning Conditions

C2. Teacher Working Conditions Affect Teacher Retention

C3. Teachers and Administrators View Working Conditions Differently

C4. Teacher Working Conditions in North Carolina Have Improved and Are Better Than in Other States

C5. Working Conditions Results Were More Likely to Improve in Schools Where Teachers Indicated that They Had Used Prior Survey Results

C6. Schools Vary in the Presence of Teacher Working Conditions

In his 2007 study, Hirsch examined the relationship between teacher working conditions, student achievement, and teacher retention. The study finds significant differences in perceptions of empowerment, leadership, and facilities/resources across school levels. Interestingly, perceptions of time and professional development showed few differences when comparing high and low-performing schools across NC. Hirsch discovered a weak correlation between time and elementary and middle school student achievement. Stronger correlations were found between student achievement and the domains of facilities/resources, leadership, and empowerment across all school levels. Additionally, free/reduced lunch eligibility was significantly correlated with student achievement. Teacher demographics negatively correlated with student achievement, especially among novice and Lateral Entry Licensed teachers. Hirsch also noted that while teacher demographics did not significantly influence their perception of working conditions, school-level demographics did. Elementary teachers generally had more positive perceptions than at other levels. Hirsch controls for various co-variates affecting student achievement, finding that working condition domains and teacher demographics were significant predictors of achievement. It highlights the differing perceptions of working conditions between teachers and administrators, with teachers generally less positive, particularly regarding time, leadership, and empowerment. However, most teachers viewed their schools favorably and wished to remain teaching, with leadership being the most critical factor influencing retention intentions.  

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